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Ray Charles Robinson (September 23, 1930 – June 10, 2004), known by his stage name Ray Charles, was an American pianist and singer, who shaped the sound of rhythm and blues. He brought a soulful sound to country music and pop standards through his Modern Sounds recordings, as well as a rendition of "America the Beautiful" that Ed Bradley of 60 Minutes called the "definitive version of the song, an American anthem — a classic, just as the man who sung it." Frank Sinatra called him "the only true genius in the business".
In 2004, Rolling Stone Magazine ranked Charles number ten on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time and also voted him number two on their November 2008 list of The 100 Greatest Singers of All Time.
Biography - Early life
Ray Charles was not born blind. He became totally blind by the age of
seven. Charles never knew exactly why he lost his sight, though there
are sources which suggest his blindness was due to glaucoma, and some
other sources suggest that Ray began to lose his sight from an infection
caused by soapy water to his eyes which was left untreated. He attended
school at the St. Augustine School for the Deaf and the Blind in St.
Augustine, Florida. He also learned how to write music and play various
musical instruments. While he was there, his mother died followed by his
father two years later.
Charles moved to Seattle in 1947. He soon started recording, first
for the label Swingtime Records, achieving his first hit with
"Confession Blues", recorded in 1949. The song hit #2 on the R&B charts.
He followed his first recording with his only other hit with Swingtime,
"Baby, Let Me Hold Your Hand" in 1951. It hit #5 on the R&B charts. He
then signed with Ahmet Ertegün at Atlantic Records a year later. When
he entered show business, his name was shortened to Ray Charles to avoid
confusion with boxer Sugar Ray Robinson.
The song reached the top of Billboard's R&B singles chart in 1955 and
from there until 1959, Charles would have a series of R&B chart-toppers
including "This Little Girl of Mine", "Lonely Avenue", "Mary Ann",
"Drown in My Own Tears" and "The Night Time (Is the Right Time)", which
were compiled on his Atlantic releases Hallelujah, I Love Her So, Yes
Indeed!, and The Genius Sings the Blues. During this time of transition,
he recruited a young girl group from Philadelphia named the Cookies as
his background singing group, recording with them in New York and
changing their name to the Raelettes in the process. Former record
producer Joel Dorn often wrote letters to Nesuhi Ertegun telling them
that he should do a duet.
Hit songs such as "Georgia On My Mind" (US #1), "Hit the Road Jack"
(US #1) and "Unchain My Heart" (US #9) helped him transition to pop
success and his landmark 1962 album, Modern Sounds in Country and
Western Music and its sequel Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music,
Vol. 2, helped to bring country into the mainstream of music. He also
had major pop hits in 1963 with "Busted" (US #4) and "Take These Chains
From My Heart" (US #8).
During the late 1960s and into the 1970s, Charles' releases were hit-or-miss, with some big hits and critically acclaimed work. His version of "Georgia On My Mind" was proclaimed the state song of Georgia on April 24, 1979, with Charles performing it on the floor of the state legislature. He also had success with his unique version of "America the Beautiful." In November 1977 Charles appeared as the host of NBC's Saturday Night Live.
In the late 1980s a number of events increased Charles' recognition among young audiences. He made a cameo appearance in the popular 1980 film The Blues Brothers. In 1985, "The Right Time" was featured in the episode "Happy Anniversary" of The Cosby Show on NBC. In a Pepsi Cola commercial of the early 1990s, Charles popularized the catchphrase "You Got the Right One, Baby!"
Despite his support of Martin Luther King, Jr. in the 1960s and his support for the American Civil Rights Movement, Charles courted controversy when he toured South Africa in 1981, during an international boycott of the country because of its apartheid policy.
Charles with President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1984.In 1989, Charles recorded a cover version of the Japanese band Southern All Stars' song "Itoshi no Ellie" as "Ellie My Love" for a Suntory TV advertisement, reaching #3 on Japan's Oricon chart. Eventually, it sold more than 400,000 copies, and became that year's best-selling single performed by a Western artist for the Japanese music market.
Charles has also appeared at two Presidential inaugurations. In 1985, he performed for Ronald Reagan's second inauguration, and in 1993 performed for Bill Clinton's first inauguration.
In the late '80s and early '90s, Charles made appearances on The Super Dave Osbourne Show, where he performed and appeared in a few vignettes where he was somehow driving a car, often as Super Dave's chauffeur. At the height of his newfound fame in the early nineties, Charles did guest vocals for quite a few projects. He also appeared (with Chaka Khan) on long time friend Quincy Jones' hit "I'll Be Good to You" in 1990, from Jones' album Back on the Block.
Following Jim Henson's death in 1990, Ray Charles appeared in the one-hour CBS tribute, The Muppets Celebrate Jim Henson. He gave a short speech about the deceased, stating that Henson "took a simple song and a piece of felt and turned it into a moment of great power". Charles was referring to the song "It's Not Easy Being Green", which Charles later performed with the rest of the Muppet cast in a tribute to Henson's legacy.
During the sixth season of Designing Women, Ray Charles vocally
performed "Georgia On My Mind", rather than the song being rendered by
other musicians without lyrics as in the previous five seasons.
In 2002 Charles headlined during the Blues Passions Cognac festival in southern France.
In 2002 he took part with other musicians in a peace concert in Rome, which was the first event to take place inside the city’s ancient Colosseum since A.D. 404. The event was organized in partnership with the Glocal Forum and the Quincy Jones Listen Up Foundation.
In June, 2003, Ray Charles presented one of his greatest admirers, Van Morrison, with his Award upon being inducted in the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the two sang Morrison's song from the Moondance album, "Crazy Love". This performance is captured on Morrison's 2007 album, The Best of Van Morrison Volume 3.
On Friday, April 11th 2003, Ray Charles sang 'America The Beautiful' at Fenway Park in Boston, Friday, prior to the rained out Red Sox home opener against the Baltimore Orioles.
In 2003 Charles performed "Georgia On My Mind" and "America the Beautiful" at a televised annual electronic media journalist banquet held in Washington, D.C., at what may have been his final performance in public. Ray Charles' final public appearance came on April 30, 2004, at the dedication of his music studio as a historic landmark in the city of Los Angeles.
He died on June 10, 2004 of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) at his home in Beverly Hills, California, surrounded by family and friends. His body was interred in the Inglewood Park Cemetery in Inglewood, California.
Susaye Greene, former member of Charles' Raelettes, as well as the Supremes and Wonderlove and currently a solo artist, was noted for being the only Raelette to sing at Ray Charles' funeral. After the funeral, the BBC said "it did not go unnoticed that Susaye was the only Raelette to sing at Ray's funeral."
His final album, Genius Loves Company, released two months after his death, consists of duets with various admirers and contemporaries: B.B. King, Van Morrison, Willie Nelson, James Taylor, Gladys Knight, Michael McDonald, Natalie Cole, Elton John, Bonnie Raitt, Diana Krall, Norah Jones, and Johnny Mathis. The album won eight Grammy Awards, including five for Ray Charles for Best Pop Vocal Album, Album of the Year, Record of the Year and Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals for "Here We Go Again" with Norah Jones, and Best Gospel Performance for "Heaven Help Us All" with Gladys Knight; he also received nods for his duets with Elton John and B.B. King.
The album included a version of Harold Arlen's "Over the Rainbow", sung as a duet by Charles and Johnny Mathis; that recording was later played at his memorial service.
Two more posthumous albums, Genius & Friends (2005) and Ray Sings, Basie Swings (2006), were released. Genius & Friends consisted of duets recorded from 1997-2005 with artists were personally chosen by Ray Charles. Ray Sings, Basie Swings consists of archived vocals of Ray Charles from a live 1973 performance added to Count Basie's music. Charles' vocals recorded from the concert mixing board were added to a new accompaniment by the Count Basie Orchestra (among others). Gregg Field, who had performed as a drummer with both Charles and Basie, produced this album. and his T.V. show on fox television